Topic 3: Modernize ocean infrastructure and enhance technology development.
Lead P.I.: Dr. James K.B. Bishop, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
The partnership will demonstrate the concept of low-cost autonomous vehicles outfitted with a suite of low-power optical, physical and chemical sensors which, when widely deployed, will permit high frequency – 4D -observations in the upper 1000 m of the variability of ocean biological processes, carbon biomass, physics and parameters of the carbon system.
The autonomous platform to be used is the Sounding Oceanographic Lagrangian Observer (SOLO), a low-cost, low-power profiling float. This well proven ocean physics platform, augmented with new optical sensors for biogeochemistry, will permit the rapid and precise determination of two important products of photosynthesis, particulate organic carbon (POC) and particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), and physical data relevant to the understanding of the variability of these products. It is envisioned that once proven, such floats can be widely deployed to explore carbon biomass variability on global scales. The sensors and methodology employed in this project can easily migrate to other autonomous platforms; furthermore, the work of this partnership will lay the foundation for expanded sensor suites and their integration onto recoverable autonomous self-navigating platforms designed to quantify both the reactants and products of photosynthesis, and the rates of carbon-system processes.
Number of Years: 2
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography (Instrument Development Group) - Adaptation of SOLO platform for optical sensors; telemetry and mission programming; sensor integration; analysis of physical data.
- WET Labs, Inc. – Development of optical sensors for determining particulate organic carbon and particulate inorganic carbon; biofouling remediation.
- Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory – Project and science coordination; particulate organic carbon and particulate inorganic carbon sensor development and field calibration; Multiple Unit Large Volume in situ Filtration System; analysis of carbon dynamics.
Development of an Autonomous Sampling Network for Plankton, Hydrography and Currents. Phase I. Incorporation of Plankton Imaging Capability into Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
Lead P.I.: Dr. Cabell S. Davis, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
Episodic factors such as storms, water mass interactions, and predator-prey patchiness are a major source of variability in marine populations, but, due to technological limitations, this variability cannot be adequately quantified. The partnership will use a 3-phase approach to develop an autonomous sampling network for measuring abundance of planktonic taxa (together with environmental variables) with high resolution in time and space. In Phase 1 (current funding request), a modular Video Plankton Recorder (VPR) will be developed for use on autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), and the VPR/AUV system will be field tested in a variety of habitats. Phase 2 will focus on docking and battery recharging issues to enable repeated autonomous sampling between two shore stations. In Phase 3, a small autonomous network of VPR/AUVs together with docking stations will be deployed in a remote area and transmit data via satellite telemetry. This network, together with data assimilative modeling, will greatly improve predictive capability in Oceanography.
Number of Years: 2
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution – Project management; digital video recorder; integration with Remote Environmental Monitoring Unit (REMUS); pressure housing design; field demonstration
- Sea Scan, Inc. – VPR system design; VPR optics; strobe design
- Massachusetts Water Resource Authority – Plume tracking; providing comparative data
- Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Participation in field study; creation of public displays
- Environmental Protection Agency – Ship time; analysis of data collected
- New England Aquarium – Documentation of field study; development of public display
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Lead P.I.: Dr. Percy L. Donaghay, University of Rhode Island
The partnership will develop, test, and demonstrate ORCAS, a system of ship-deployed and autonomous moored bottom-up profilers for coherent, real-time monitoring of multiple biological, physical, chemical, and optical parameters within the ocean, in 3-D space and time. The innovative profiling technology combines small intelligent underwater winch and sensor controllers, miniaturized sensors for inherent optical properties, and profiling nutrient analyzers. The high-resolution profilers will be readily deployable for determination of the coastal environmental response to episodic events such as storms, nutrient inputs, hypoxia, and algal blooms.
Two types of autonomous profiling packages are planned. The first is a compact, but highly integrated, profiler featuring miniaturized sensors for CTD and optics. This smaller, lower-cost package will allow easy deployment individually or as a horizontal array of several bottom-up profilers that provide broad spatial coverage. The second profiler package will be comprised of a comprehensive suite of high-resolution physical, chemical and bio-optical sensors. It will be deployable either from a surface ship or a mooring. Intelligent controllers and telecommunications modules will allow autonomous operation, in situ data processing, and real-time data telemetry to a base computer, and internet dissemination. Collected data will be used to generate 4-D fields of information; in turn these fields can be used to generate useful environmental products.
Number of Years: 3
- University of Rhode Island – Project coordination; profiler development and deployment; physical, biological, optical data collection and analysis; focus on episodic events, thin plankton layers and harmful algal bloom
- WET Labs, Inc. – Development of intelligent controller and data acquisition systems for the autonomous profiler winch and sensor packages; development of mini-optical, CTD sensor systems; on-site field support
- SubChem Systems – Development and field deployment of in situ nutrient analyzers and data analysis; investigation of event-driven nutrient dynamics, hypoxia, thin plankton layers and harmful algal blooms; assistance with University of Rhode Island project coordination
- Naval Research Laboratory – Coordination with Navy research optics programs; participation in mooring validation and diver exercises; data processing/evaluation; algorithm development; transition of results to Navy
- Commander, Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command – Coordination with operational Navy objectives; divers for in-water visibility and vulnerability exercises; development and transition of operational product; ship arrangements and cost
- Environmental Protection Agency – Coordination with EPA-Gulf Ecology program objectives (hypoxia, HAB); integration and deployment of Fast Repetition Rate Fluorescence with University of Rhode Island profiler, and data analysis
Lead P.I.: Dr. Mitsuhiro Kawase, University of Washington
This partnership will develop a 5-year research plan for a regional modeling and data assimilation “node” of interdisciplinary, inter-agency research in estuarine oceanography with a focus on Puget Sound, Washington. The envisioned node will capitalize on existing modeling and data-gathering activities conducted by the partnership members in response to an urgent and growing need for understanding of Puget Sound ecosystem and anthropogenic impacts on the system; will conduct highly integrated, interdisciplinary research on modeling the Sound’s ecosystem; and will seek to disseminate the knowledge through experimental Grade 8 and undergraduate educational activities. In this planning phase, partnership will: (1) convene regular meetings of the partners to strengthen linkage and develop a comprehensive plan; (2) assess resource needs for the envisioned node and coordinate this with the emerging “node-hub” structure of NOPP; and (3) seek outside expertise in the area of data assimilation and develop strategies for bringing this in to the partnership.
Number of Years: 1
- University of Washington School of Oceanography – Partnership coordination; assessment of computational needs – modeling of entire Sound, data management; preparation of five-year proposal; seminar organization. College of Education – Preparation of five-year proposal
- King County Department of Natural Resources – Assessment of computational needs – modeling of central Sound; preparation of five-year proposal
- Washington State Department of Ecology – Assessment of computational needs – modeling of south Sound; preparation of five-year proposal
Development and Verification of a Comprehensive Community Model for Physical Processes in the Nearshore Ocean
Lead P.I.: Dr. James T. Kirby, University of Delaware, Center for Applied Coastal Research
The partnership will develop and test a comprehensive community model that predicts waves, currents, sediment transport and bathymetric change in the nearshore ocean, between the shoreline and about 10 m water depth. The model will consist of a “backbone”, handling data input and output as well as internal storage, together with a suite of “modules”, each of which handles a focused subset of the physical processes being studied. A wave module will model wave transformation over arbitrary coastal bathymetry and predict radiation stresses and wave induced mass fluxes. A circulation module will model the slowly varying current field driven by waves, wind and buoyancy forcing, and will provide information about the bottom boundary layer structure. A seabed module will model sediment transport, determine the bedform geometry, parameterize the bedform effect on bottom friction, and compute morphological evolution resulting from spatial variations in local sediment transport rates. The project will support extensions to the science base associated with each module, and will support the use of existing field and laboratory data sets to define significant tests of the modules. Data assimilation techniques will be developed and employed to address the problems of insufficient boundary data information in model applications to field experiments as well as parameter determination.
Number of Years: 5
- University of Delaware – Project coordination; program integration; wave module; circulation module
- Oregon State University - Circulation model
- University of Florida – Sediment Transport; morphology module
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography – Data assimilation; model verification
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution – Data assimilation; model verification
- North Carolina State University - Sediment transport; morphology module
- University of Michigan – Sediment transport; morphology module
- Naval Postgraduate School – Wave module; sediment transport; morphology module
- Naval Research Laboratory – Wave module
Incorporation of Sensors into Autonomous Gliders for 4-D Measurements of Bio-Optical and Chemical Parameters
Lead P.I.: Dr. Mary Jane Perry, University of Maine
Members of this partnership have developed and deployed a small (1.8 m, 52 kg) underwater glider that moves horizontally and vertically using buoyancy and wings. The glider can perform hundreds of cycles per launch from surface to 2,000 m or less, report data back (including GPS location) in real time upon each surfacing, and be reprogrammed from shore. At present the glider only measures physical parameters. This project will expand the glider’s capabilities to include measurement of inherent optical properties of the water and dissolved oxygen at the same time and space scales as the physics. The partnership will design and build miniaturized sensors with low power consumption, incorporate them into the glider, and do extensive engineering tests. A series of scientific demonstrations will be conducted in Puget Sound. The glider will be incorporated into technology-based curricula development for eight grade and undergraduate programs.
Number of Years: 3
- University of Maine – Project management; optical sensor validation; science demonstrations; data analysis
- University of Washington – Building, testing, and deployment of gliders; sensor validation; science demonstrations; data analysis; curriculum development
- Oregon State University – Data analysis; dye studies
- WET Labs, Inc. – Develop optical sensors
- Sea-Bird Electronics, Inc. – Modify oxygen sensor
- King County Department of Natural Resources – Moorings; CTD surveys, dye experiment; research vessel
- Washington Department of Ecology – Oxygen sensor validation; primary productivity; seaplane hydrographic surveys
Planning for a Coupled Physical-Biological Modeling Node: A ‘Phase A’ National Oceanographic Partnership Program Proposal
Lead P.I.: Dr. Lewis M. Rothstein, University of Rhode Island
This project will initiate an interdisciplinary partnership program to plan for the development of the next generation of coupled physical-biological models. The ultimate goal is to develop these models for predictive/forecast purposes. The fundamental operational objective for the one-year program is to develop a detailed scientific and implementation plan to establish the partnership’s contribution to a coupled physical-biological modeling ‘node’ as a component of the national hub-node modeling infrastructure. The main scientific objective is to begin implementing data assimilation techniques in coupled physical-biological models for the purpose of better understanding global ecosystem complexity, for developing the next generation of community ecosystem models, and for formulating predictive/forecast models.
Number of Years: 1
- University of Rhode Island – Project coordinator; regional nested-grid modeling; embedded mixed layer modeling; model forecast systems; data acquisition and interpretation for model calibration, validation and assimilation; coastal modeling
- Oregon State University – Data assimilation; coastal modeling; open ocean regional modeling; remote sensing
- University of Miami - Basin and global scale physical modeling; hybrid isopycnal/level coordinate models for the coastal open-ocean interface
- Virginia Institute of Marine Science – Data acquisition and interpretation for model calibration, validation and assimilation
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology - Basis scale models; biogeochemical cycles
- Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey – Data assimilation; adaptive grid structures; domain interfacing (coastal/deep ocean coupling)
- Old Dominion University – Coastal and estuarine modeling; data assimilation; biological process modeling
- Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution – Role of mesoscale processes on biogeochemical cycling; impact of coastal circulation on biological processes; biological data assimilation
- Naval Research Laboratory – Basin and coastal modeling; data assimilation; model forecast systems
- National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration – Model forecast systems and general ocean modeling; data assimilation
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration - Ocean color satellite data products; data assimilation
- National Center for Atmospheric Research – Biological process modeling; global climate system models; biogeochemical processes